Browse Category: Teach For America

A Literacy Experiment

Jessica Ruscello

Reading growth is a thing. A really important thing.

The reading growth goal that TFA assigns us is 1.6 years of growth on the grade equivalency scale, when our students take their STAR Reading test. Right now, we have a range of scale stores from 66 to 88, which translates to a .4 to 1.2 in grade equivalency.

1.6 is a lot of growth! It means I need to get my kids to read at a 2.0 to a 2.8 reading level by the end of the year. In other words, I need to get every child in my room reading above grade level.

We took STAR for the first time on August 27, and our average grade equivalency was .59. We took STAR again on September 20, and the average grade equivalency was .80. That’s growth! I think there are a few factors going on – first, the kindergarten and pre-k test (STAR Early Literacy) reads questions to the students, so the first time they take STAR Reading, a lot of the kids are taken aback by the fact that they have to read the questions on their own. I think this pulls down some scores – kids who show that they’re high readers in the classroom had some relatively low scores on the first test, and this might be why.

One idea I had to improve our reading growth was sending home books to read – I have access to Reading A-Z, and I thought that if I send home one of their leveled readers every week with every child, along with instructions to read that book every night for of the week, that might make a difference. Using the leveled readers also allows me to differentiate – I can send home a level C book with my lower readers, a level D book for my on-level readers, and a level E or F book for my high readers. This should allow my kids to get more of what they need in terms of reading material, and help them grow more. By December, I should be sending home a level E book with my lower readers, a level F book with my on-level readers, and a level G or H book with my high readers, and that should continue to progress throughout the year.

Of course, this relies on parent engagement too – I need my parents to remind their kids to read. I also need to pick texts that my kids are interested in, so they’ll actually want to read those books.

The one thing I wish I could do is isolate the effect of this – I wish I could, somehow, have a control group of students who are receiving regular classroom instruction, and regular homework, but not sending books home. I think that would be unethical, though, to do something that I think would help improve reading scores, but only do it for half of my kids. I wouldn’t want to have to explain to parents that I tried to do something extra to improve reading scores, but their child wasn’t included in it because…I wanted to run a little experiment in my classroom. It wouldn’t be useful, either, to compare my STAR data from last year to my STAR data from this year, because I’m not teaching the exact same way I was last year, and I wasn’t in the same classroom for the entirety of last year.

So, readers, I’m looking to you – how can I test to see if this is actually working, while still including all of my kids, and all of the kids in the other first grade class? If you have a bright idea about testing the effectiveness of different methods in elementary classrooms, leave it in the comments on this post.

First Grade: Round Two

Somehow, it was the first day of school, and now we’re 15% of the way through this year. It’s weird how fast time has passed this year.

I think my management has gotten a lot better this year – we started teaching routines on day one and I’ve been trying my hardest to stick to them. Lining up the same way every day, moving to the carpet the same way every day, moving centers the same way, doing bulldog bucks at the same times and for the same things, that kind of thing.

I’ve been working on cracking down on the little things, so that my students won’t get the idea that they can get away with little things and move on to big things. For instance, I’ve been giving a lot more consequences for talking out of turn, calling out, and getting out of seats without permission. Hopefully, that’s going to give my students the idea that they can’t get away with anything, and prevent bigger issues like hitting and kicking. I’ve also switched from using a clip chart in the classroom to using a clip stick that I carry with me everywhere. Last year, I would need to give consequences at recess or in the hallway, but I had a hard time maintaining that consistency between the classroom and the rest of the school.

I’m also proud that I’ve been able to make rewards consistent for my students. I’ve been awarding bulldog bucks on ClassDojo for attendance, morning behavior, lunchtime behavior, and afternoon behavior. At the end of the week, students who have 15 or more bulldog bucks get a special treat. The treat changes week to week, but I’ve made sure that it happens every week.

Academics are also playing out a differently this year. I’m writing ELA plans, for one, and my teammate is writing math and science. Last year, it was the reverse. My principal wants us to use Saxon Phonics, but there wasn’t any money to pay for the refill kit, so I’ve been trying to make do with the parts I have left from last year. I really like Saxon and I think it helps tremendously with reading, but it’s a puzzle to teach when you don’t have the resources. We also had this issue with out reading curriculum – our school was supposed to be getting Wonders, but we didn’t have it for the first month of school. Now, Wonders has arrived, but we don’t have any teacher books and we don’t have any kind of training in how to teach it, so everyone’s hesitant to use it.

For the first month or so, I was just using EngageNY’s Listening and Learning strand and doing read-alouds of fables, then fairytales. I think my kids liked it, but my teammate and I were concerned that we were doing them a disservice by not putting more text in their hands – tasking them with actually decoding words on their own. This week, we went back to using Journey’s, which is the reading comprehension curriculum that my school has been using for years. I’m not a huge fan of Journey’s, but it’s what we have, and it’s been working okay. This was my first time using the assessments from Journey’s – last year, my teammate planned ELA and made the assessments, but I thought we’d give the curriculum ones a try. Looking at the assessment, I thought that it might not be rigorous enough, but it was a pretty reasonable bell curve for my students grades.

Our schedule changed this year, so that we’re doing centers in the afternoon, right before math. Our math block is shorter this year, and I’m worried that we’re not fitting enough in, and that our students are going to fall behind in math. I’m also concerned that we’re not incorporating enough spiral review into our lessons. Our curriculum, GoMath! doesn’t really have any spiral review, and I think it’s really important, but it also feels like we just don’t have time. I’m also worried that we’re not pushing our students to higher order thinking enough. At first, I was trying to work those in through my math meeting routine, but that took 15 minutes – it wasn’t working to do math meeting and then keep my kids on the carpet for our math lesson – it’s way too much time for first graders to sit still on the carpet. I’m still not sure how to make that it happen.

It’s funny – I’ve had a couple days this week where I felt like I was right back where I was last year. When I’m writing all of this out, taking the time to think and reflect about it, it does feel like I’ve made progress. It’s helpful, I think, to consider that progress when it feels like you aren’t moving forward fast enough.

And, because I am a total cornball, here is the song lyric that comes to mind in this situation.

“Look at where you are
“Look at where you started”

Teacher Planning Camp

Alternate title: my nerdy aspirations.

I have big, exciting plans for the upcoming holiday weekend, basically just planning for the upcoming year.

I have 4 days off and I hope I can get the majority of my planning done for the month of August. This includes planning the sequence of teaching procedures,

Here’s the agenda:

Friday, June 30

Make a list of procedures, begin scripting directions for procedures.

Saturday, July 1

Schedule teaching procedures for the first two weeks of the year.

Script directions for all procedures.

Put together 100 chart (cut numbers apart)

Create number cards for 100-120.

Sunday, July 2

Write social-emotional learning/class culture plan.

Write ELA first month plan.

Write math first month plan.

Write weekly assessments for first month (ELA and Math)

Monday, July 3

Write first month lesson plans for ELA, including student investment plan.

Write first month lesson plans for math, including student investment plan.

Write year-long writing plan.

Organize files in Google Drive.

Tuesday, July 4

Find/create worksheets for OA dry erase board center.

Set up binders for OA dry erase board center.

Create exit tickets for first month math plans.

Create any required printouts for first month ELA plans.

I’ll keep this updated with anything else that comes up – I’ll mark things when they’re completed, and add whatever else comes to mind.

Teach for America: We made it

Me, leaving my end of year meeting with my TLD

Yesterday was the last day of school.

Over the summer, I wrote in my classroom vision that I wanted to have a class where my students were collaborative and supportive and learning from each other. Come October, December, February, this felt like a silly, naive idea, totally irrelevant to the actual struggles I’ve had in my classroom all year.

All year, when a student doesn’t know the answer to a question, I’ve been saying “Can anyone help [student]?” Then, I tell that student to call on another student who has their hand raised.

Yesterday, I was reviewing trigraphs with my kids during our phonics lesson – I introduced the trigraphs, then I asked my kids to think of words that included that trigraph. For example, words like “light” “fight” “right” “tight” and “night” all include trigraph igh. The trigraph was dge, and I asked “Can anyone think of words with trigraph dge?” Z raised his hand, I called on him, then he spent a minute trying to think of a word. Then, J was sitting next to him and said “Z, do you need some help?” And suggested a word.

Totally unprompted.

It was this tiny glimpse of something I’ve tried in my classroom actually working. Like “Hey. I did that! I made that happen!”

Teaching as Design

TFA frames teaching as leadership. That’s the name of the framework we’re following, TAL – Teaching as Leadership. Throughout the recruitment, this is a point they head home – this is leadership training, our students need strong leaders, and diversity, equity, and inclusivity is the center of our leadership. As a student leader, this was appealing to me, but they could have sent a message that would have hit my heart in an entirely different way.

Teaching as design.

Teaching is an undeniably creative process, and to me, it’s design thinking. Specifically, it’s human centered design – you are constantly iterating and trying new things with real, small humans. In design, you start out with a problem, or a goal; making a thinner iPhone. In teaching, that goal might be getting your students to understand two digit addition with regrouping. You’re getting feedback, constantly, and you modify your work to respond to that feedback.

In teaching, the feedback you get is often loud and unruly and sometimes children stick their middle finger up at you if they have a problem with what you’re doing. Sometimes the feedback looks like data – test scores, exit tickets, STAR planning reports.

In design, the feedback is focus groups, user testing, A/B testing.

Either way, the feedback informs the way you proceed, it informs the changes that you make to your practice. With both design and teaching, it is a practice, and your practice is going to change and evolve over time – my classroom is going to be different next year from the way it’s been this year, in so many ways.

My students took the TFA math summative, and I spent hours grading and entering data for every student, for every question. It’s a sixteen page test, and I have 18 students, so this was tedious, to say the least, and it’s a rigorous test – my students were showing mastery on the tests I’ve been giving all year, but when the summative happened, we didn’t do nearly as well, as shown on the above spreadsheets. Look at 1.OA.6, 1.OA.1, and 1.NBT.5 – I can look at the feedback and get results that will inform what I’m doing next year. You bet we’re going to devote more time to those standards, from the beginning of the school year, and I’m going to be integrating more rigorous content into the curriculum that the district provides.

To me, this is design thinking – iterating and testing out ideas, and creative problem solving is at the heart of it all.

Grading Anxiety

When I was at Western, I was obsessive about my GPA. It felt like a chance to redeem myself from what felt like a huge failure at art school, it felt like a chance to finally prove that I was smart. In two and a half years, I only had one B and one BA, finishing with a 3.96 or 3.94 or something.

That number would have been higher if I hadn’t taken Early American Lit, which ruined me.

It felt like an accomplishment.

At high school graduation, I undoubtedly had the lowest GPA out of my friend group. I wasn’t dumb, but I had made some mistakes (I’m looking at you, C in freshman year Earth Science) and some things just didn’t work out the way I hoped (hey, straight Bs for the semester because I spent the week before finals in the hospital while my grandma was dying.) I graduated with a 3.4, which some of the colleges I applied to recalculated, adding in extra points for AP and honors classes.

I honestly thought that the obsession and investment and confusion over grades would be over when I graduated.

I was wrong.

My elementary school didn’t give out grades. My elementary school was, compared to the school where I teach, hippie-ish. There were movable walls! There was team-teaching! We had recess twice a day! Our report cards were a long list of skills, academic and social-emotional and practical, and you got a grade on each of those. They would include things like “Adding and subtracting two-digit numbers,” “Plays appropriately with peers,” “Using scissors” and “Identifying left and right.”

In kindergarten, I distinctly remember getting the left and right one wrong, because the person asking me gave me a hint, saying “Your right hand is the one you write with.”

I’m left-handed.

At my school, we give out grades. Numbers that translate into letters that translate into passing or failing.

Grading is frustrating because I have to give a number, to every student, for Reading, Language, and Math. That number doesn’t have a way for me to say “They are still behind but they have improved so much.” and it doesn’t have a way for me to say “Their grammar is great, but they struggle with phonics – they don’t quite get vowel patterns yet.” There’s no way for me to say “Their behavior changed recently, and we’ve been working on changing how we react to this kind of situation.”

I’ve spent this year trying to figure out how to handle grading – which assignments to grade, how to grade homework, how rigorous assignments should be in order to count them for a grade. I’m always trying to strike a balance – if the work you’re grading is too hard, everyone’s failing, if the work you’re grading is too easy, then your gradebook is full of 100’s and it’s not rigorous enough.

Then, there’s the troubleshooting side of things – how do I manage making up tests when students are absent? How do I manage making up work that was unfinished in class?

I still don’t feel like I have it figured out.

Afternoon Rhythm

The graphing activity we did in math yesterday, from Tara West’s FirstieMath on TeachersPayTeachers.

I’ve been focusing a lot of my energy, lately, on getting my afternoon math block right. The morning has gotten better because I’ve been more consistent about explaining centers and I’ve started our morning meeting earlier, but it still feels, often, like my afternoon is a hot mess, my kids won’t stop talking, and there’s 10 minutes at the end of the day where I’m not sure how to keep my students occupied while we’re getting ready to go home.

Things have been getting a little better – about two months ago, I started doing a little math meeting routine where we all say the date, “yesterday was” and “tomorrow will be. For example, “Today is Friday, March 31, 2017. Yesterday was Thursday, March 30, 2017. Tomorrow will be Saturday, April 1, 2017.” Then we count to 100 or 120 by fives and tens.

Last week, I added in a little number sense routine, where I hold out some blocks and ask how many blocks I would have to add or take away to get to a different number of blocks. I try to get the kids to explain it to the class, which I guess is something like a math talk.

Here’s an example.

Ms. Macy: I have some blocks. Can anyone tell me how many blocks this is?

Student: It’s 34 blocks.

Ms. Macy: Good job, yep, it’s 34 blocks. I wish I had 12 blocks. Can anyone tell me how I could get to 12 blocks?

Student: You could take away two tens and then take away two ones.

Ms. Macy: Great job, now do that with the blocks and explain it to the whole class.

Student: (gets up in front of class) So we started out with 34 blocks, and I knew we wanted to get to 12 so we have to subtract, so I took away 2 tens but I still had 14 left. I took away 2 more ones and then I had 12.

This week, I started something new in my math block that’s actually worked out pretty. It feels like such an obvious solution, I’m a little embarrassed that it took me this long to figure it out. I got a review packet off Teachers Pay Teachers, printed off five pages of it, and have my kids do a page of it every day, as an early finisher activity. This buys me a little time at the end of the day to get homework folders together, and gives my kids who don’t get dismissed as early something to do while I get my bus riders out the door.

Dispatches from Pluto

I heard of Dispatches from Pluto sometime when I first found out I was placed in Mississippi, it was recommended by someone from TFA, as a depiction of life in the Delta. I had been meaning to read it for a while, but hadn’t gotten around to it.

I finally got around to reading it, courtesy of the Jackson Hinds Library System* and it was a really quick read – it was entertaining throughout.

The premise is that Richard Grant, a British journalist who’s been living in New York, moves to Mississippi with his girlfriend. Before moving there, he experienced the same thing I did when I told people I was moving here: people who had never been here telling me that it would be awful, everyone would be racist, and everything would be backwards. Grant states his purpose clearly, at the very beginning.

One of my hopes in writing this book is to dissolve these clumsy old stereotypes, and illustrate my conviction that Mississippi is the best-kept secret in America. Nowhere else is so poorly understood by outsiders, so unfairly maligned, so surreal and peculiar, so charming and maddening.

He had met a woman named Martha in Oxford years before he moved to Mississippi, and she had told him about the Delta, and tried to take him on a tour of the Delta. Years later, he came down for a tour. He stumbled upon a plantation house in Pluto, and persuaded his girlfriend to move there with him.

The book depicts a sort of exploration of things that are specific to Mississippi. The author goes to Parchman State Penitentiary, discusses the schools in Leflore County and Whitman County Elementary, with some details about the Barksdale Reading Institute and all the work being done to improve that school. The author plays golf with Morgan Freeman and a dentist who worked at Parchman, and covers the campaign for mayor of Greenwood.

I always want to ask people who live in the Delta how realistic they think this is – I know there isn’t a single story of the Delta, but does this book paint a picture that people living in the Delta recognize? Sometimes it seems unrealistic – his story covers a lot of unique people and places, but fails to acknowledge the high poverty rates and the lack of healthcare that many people face in the Delta. Those are likely a more realistic depiction of life in the Delta than playing golf with Morgan Freeman.

On Elementary Science

Engage NY was easy to use and my kids liked it. Perfect.

In my first year of teaching, I’ve received a wealth of information on teaching reading, and a decent amount about teaching math, and next to nothing about teaching science. I’m not complaining! I understand why – so much of elementary school (especially lower elementary) is about building a foundation so that students can learn later on. That’s why there’s so much emphasis on reading in first grade – it’s where students do so much of learning to read.

Still, science is a thing that I teach, and I really like teaching it. We do science after math, right at the end of the day. I like doing something that’s heavy on carpet time, and things that are immediate. When we were learning about the human body, we did a lot of movements – bending to help understand what joints are, flexing our arms to show what muscles are, that kind of thing.

For the first semester, I used curricula from EngageNY’s Listening and Learning strand – The Human Body and Animals and Habitats.

Both of them are read alouds with a flip book included, which I put up on my projector. Since the projector was on, I had the lights off, which had the added bonus of making my classroom feel a little more calm at the end of the day. Also, it totally helped with some our speaking and listening standards, right?

Now that I’ve used all the Engage NY curricula that are related to our state science standards, I’m kind of at a loss for what to do. We have a science textbook, so that’s one resource, but I’d like to do something more fun and engaging than reading a textbook.

The next topic we’re covering is living and non-living things, then we’ll move on to parts of plants. For the lesson plans I’m writing now, I’m using some passages from the textbook, some videos I found online, and some stuff that I’ve put together myself. When I make materials myself, I’m always worried that it’s not rigorous enough, not good enough, not challenging enough. That’s something that you get a better sense of with time, right?

Christmas Break

I made it to Christmas! As of Thursday at noon, I finished my first semester of teaching. I’m halfway through my first year, and a quarter of the way through my corps commitment. It’s weird, knowing that the hardest season of teaching is over.
My last week of teaching this term was less stressful than any other week, probably. We had testing on Monday and Wednesday mornings, then regular days of school for the rest of the week. Thursday, we had a half day and I only had seven students who came to school – it was possibly the most chill day of teaching I’ve ever had. We worked on phonics, then read a ReadWorks article about squirrels getting ready for winter, did GoNoodle, worked on some math, then had lunch and watched a movie.
I think that some different forces conspire to make the day before Christmas break the least stressful day ever, so that teachers don’t quit over break.
My loose plan for break was rest, then regroup.

I spent Friday in Jackson, taking care of errands and exploring a little beach with a friend, then left on Christmas Eve to go home to Michigan. I spent all day Christmas with my family, going to my aunt’s house for my dad’s family, and having dinner with my mom’s family at our house I haven’t done any work at all since being home – today was the first time I opened my Google Drive to look at a lesson plan and write a quiz. Thus, the rest phase of my break is over, and we’re onto the regroup phase – that means writing lesson plans and getting ahead, planning out new classroom management systems, that sort of thing. Right now, I’m working on the LP for the second week of school after the break. I have all these grandiose ideas that I’m going to get all my lesson plans for the term done – I think that getting everything planned out and organized in advance will make the term less stressful for me, which will make teaching and managing my classroom better and easier, in turn.